The Elector of Saxony, the Landgrave of Hesse and other North German princes not only protected Luther from retaliation from the edict of outlawry issued by the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, but also used state power to enforce the establishment of Lutheran worship in their lands. Matthys identified Münster as the "New Jerusalem", and preparations were made, not only to hold what had been gained, but to proceed from Münster toward the conquest of the world. In 1562, seven years after the Peace of Augsburg had established a truce in Germany on the basis of territorialism, France became the centre of religious wars which endured, with brief intermissions, for 36 years. As hostilities broke out, the Edict was revoked. Mary of Guise gathered those nobles loyal to her and a small French army. European Wars of Religion Timeline created by JackWashburn. In Europe, the Christian church had been a near universal church for about 1000 years, but this was changed by the reformation of the early 1500s. The conflict took place mostly in southern, western and central areas of modern Germany but also affected areas in neighboring modern Switzerland and Austria. The contest began largely due to a religious dispute between German Roman Catholics and Protestants, but it quickly became ensnared in the dynastic competition for power within the Holy Roman Empire . In a pattern soon to become familiar in the Netherlands and Scotland, underground Calvinist preaching, and the formation of covert alliances with members of the nobility quickly led to more direct action to gain political and religious control. The Bourbons, with English support, and led by Louis I de Bourbon, Prince de Condé, and Admiral Coligny began to seize and garrison strategic towns along the Loire. In 1567, however, Mary was captured by another rebellious force at the Carberry Hill and imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle, where she was forced to abdicate the Scottish throne in favour of her one-year-old son James. The Imperial power retreated to Austria and the Habsburg lands. $57.99; $57.99; Publisher Description. Medieval Catholic Belief. On the one hand, deep divisions separated Calvinist from Lutheran; and, on the other hand, political considerations persuaded the moderate Catholic faction, the Politiques, to oppose the Holy League. This is a list of conflicts in Europe ordered chronologically, including wars between European states, civil wars within European states, wars between a European state and a non-European state that took place within Europe, and global conflicts in which Europe was a theatre of war.. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, The relationship between nature and culture, The term and concept before the 18th century, Enlightenment scorn and Romantic admiration, Late antiquity: the reconfiguration of the Roman world, The organization of late imperial Christianity, The transformation of thought and learning, The structure of ecclesiastical and devotional life, From persuasion to coercion: The emergence of a new ecclesiastical discipline, From territorial principalities to territorial monarchies. On December 23, 1588, at the Château de Blois, Henry of Guise and his brother, the Cardinal de Guise, were lured into a trap and were murdered. The war marked a continuation of the France-Habsburg rivalry for pre-eminence in Europe, which led later to direct war between France and Spain. 1524 to 1648, following the onset of the Protestant Reformation in Western and Northern Europe. With the help of the Scots, Parliament won at Marston Moor (2 July 1644), gaining York and much of the north of England. Its partisans massacred a Huguenot congregation at Vassy (1562), causing an uprising in the provinces. Defeat of the Spanish Armada This defeat is seen has one of the most famous events in English history. Simultaneously Parliament offered concessions to the Scots in return for their aid and assistance. The Renaissance had brought rapid economic and population growth which stressed traditional societal structures. 1555 . 30 Years' War. The victors confiscated almost all Irish Catholic-owned land in the wake of the conquest and distributed it to the Parliament's creditors, to the Parliamentary soldiers who served in Ireland, and to English people who had settled there before the war. The turning-point came in the late summer and early autumn of 1643, when the Earl of Essex's army forced the king to raise the siege of Gloucester and then brushed the Royalist army aside at the First Battle of Newbury on 20 September 1643. Catholicism was forcibly suppressed. Coligny and his troops retreated to the south-west and regrouped with Gabriel, comte de Montgomery, and in spring of 1570 they pillaged Toulouse, cut a path through the south of France and went up the Rhone valley up to La Charité-sur-Loire. Clément was executed on the spot, taking with him the information of who, if anyone, had hired him. Following the restoration of Catholicism under Queen Mary I of England in 1553, there was a brief unsuccessful Protestant rising in the south-east of England. Beginning as a religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire, it gradually developed into a general war involving much of Europe, for reasons not necessarily related to religion. However both kings firmly repressed attempts to spread Lutheran ideas within France. War of Roses. B This article has been rated as B-Class on the project's quality scale. Treaty of Cateau-Cambrèsis, 1559. Political, economic, and social background, The emergence of modern Europe, 1500–1648, Political and cultural influences on the economy, Revolution and the growth of industrial society, 1789–1914, General character of the Romantic movement, Early 19th-century social and political thought, The rise of organized labour and mass protests. The Lutheran duke Maurice of Saxony assisted Charles V in the first Schmalkaldic War in 1547 in order to win the Saxon electoral dignity from his Protestant cousin, John Frederick; while the Catholic king Henry II of France supported the Lutheran cause in the second Schmalkaldic War in 1552 to secure French bases in Lorraine. Mutual distrust existed between him and his French allies, the family of Guise, because of their ambitions for their niece Mary Stuart. On 30 June, the Protestants occupied Edinburgh, though they were only able to hold it for a month. Peace of Augsburg A treaty between Charles V and the forces of Lutheran princes signed in 1555, which officially ended the religious struggle between the two groups and allowed princes in the Holy Roman Empire to choose which religion would reign in their principality A 12-year truce was negotiated in 1609, and when the campaign began again it merged into the general conflict of the Thirty Years’ War, which, like the other wars of religion of this period, was fought mainly for confessional security and political gain. The Catholic cantons in response had formed an alliance with Ferdinand of Austria. 1555. The political interests of the aristocracy and the vacillating policy of balance pursued by Henry II’s widow, Catherine de Médicis, prolonged these conflicts. In 1572, rising tensions between local Catholics and Protestant forces attending the wedding of the Protestant Henri of Navarre, and the King's sister, Marguerite de Valois, culminated in the Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre. DRAFT. An organised influx of Calvinist preachers from Geneva and elsewhere during the 1550s, succeeded in setting up hundreds of underground Calvinist congregations in France. The Peace of Augsburg A treaty signed by Charles V to attempt at an end of religious conflict around Germany between Catholics and Protestants and settle land areas. The Committee of Sixteen took complete control of the government and welcomed the Duke of Guise to Paris. European Wars of Religion Timeline created by madisonplacencia. Notable exceptions were Amsterdam and Middelburg, which remained loyal to the Catholic cause until capture in 1578. In 1629, Denmark withdrew from the war leaving Wallenstein and his army in charge. The following year, the attacks extended to over 20 cities and towns, and would, in turn, incite Catholic urban groups to massacres and riots in Sens, Cahors, Carcassonne, Tours and other cities.. Henry soon found himself in the difficult position of trying to maintain royal authority in the face of feuding warlords who refused to compromise. A Scottish rebellion, known as the Bishops War soon followed, leading to the defeat of a weak royalist counter-force in 1640. Contemporary Math Preview . European Wars Of Religion; French Monarchy; Early Modern Period; Catholic Church; Kingdom Of France; Documents Similar To FrenchWarsofReligion. In History. The spread of French Calvinism persuaded the French ruler Catherine de Médicis to show more tolerance for the Huguenots, which angered the powerful Roman Catholic Guise family. There are seven questions for easy conversion to an IB grading scale. Finally, his ambition to make England and France the satellites of Spain weakened his ability to suppress Protestantism in both countries. This is not to say that the combatants can be neatly categorised by religion or were divided by their religion alone, as this was often not the case. A co-ordinated Protestant attempt was made to take over the Netherlands from four different directions, with armies led by William's brothers invading from Germany and French Huguenots invading from the south. Here they banded together to form the Schmalkaldic League (German language: Schmalkaldischer Bund), an alliance designed to protect themselves from Imperial action. In the case of the southern provinces, he speaks of a relatively small, orderly group moving along the country. Students will be required to know about the Huguenots, Philip II of Spain, the Plague and Witchcraft. In recent years religion has resurfaced amongst academics, in many ways replacing class as the key to understanding Europe's historical development. 68% average accuracy. Military intervention by external powers such as Denmark and Sweden on the Protestant side increased the duration of the war and the extent of its devastation. The rejection of Ferdinand as Crown Prince by primarily Hussite Bohemia, triggered the Thirty Years' War in 1618 when his representatives were defenestrated in Prague. The European Wars of Religion : an Interdisciplinary Reassessment of Sources, Interpretations, and Myths.. [Dietmar Regensburger; Wolfgang Palaver; Harriet … Open war was avoided by means of a peace agreement (Erster Landfriede), that was not exactly favourable to the Catholic side, who had to dissolve its alliance with the Austrian Habsburgs. After her army's defeat at the Battle of Langside on May 13, she fled to England, where she was imprisoned by Queen Elizabeth. Conflicts immediately connected with the Reformation of the 1520s to 1540s: German princes (numbering 225) could choose the religion (Lutheranism or Catholicism) of their realms according to their conscience. The Guises then proposed a settlement with a cipher as heir and demanded a meeting of the Estates-General, which was to be held in Blois. John Casimir of the Palatinate, the Calvinist champion of Protestantism in France and the Low Countries, maintained an understanding with the neighbouring princes of Lorraine, who led the ultra-Catholic Holy League in France. French Wars of Religion. The tensions remained essentially unresolved, and would flare high again in the second war of Kappel two years later. In History. The treaty was between Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor, and the Schmalkaldic League, an alliance of Lutheran princes. The political conflicts thus engendered within the Empire led almost inevitably to war. The number of actual image-breakers appears to have been relatively small. Although peace agreements were reached, the conflict restarted in 1572 following the Bartholomew's Day Massacre. As early as 1532, King François I, and (in 1551), King Henri II, had intervened politically and militarily in support of the Protestant German princes against the Habsburgs. William of Orange was put at the head of the revolt, entering the Netherlands with an army 20,000 strong, and with forces of French Huguenots in support. 0 likes. A mob poured into the church and it was entirely gutted. The 1560s. The political temperature of the surrounding lands was rising, as religious unrest grew in the Netherlands. This prompted intervention by Duke Maximilian of Bavaria on behalf of the Catholics. In 1532 the Emperor, pressed by external troubles, stepped back from confrontation, offering the "Peace of Nuremberg", which suspended all action against the Protestant states pending a General Council of the Church. Henry of Anjou was crowned King Henry III of France in 1575, at Rheims, but hostilities—the Fifth War—had already flared up again. a year ago by. The peace finally ended in the Schmalkaldic War (German language: Schmalkaldischer Krieg), a brief conflict between 1546 and 1547 between the forces of Charles V and the princes of the Schmalkaldic League. The Painter of Modern Life and Other Essays, by Charles Baudelaire. Buy The European Wars of Religion (Hardcover) at Walmart.com The European wars of religion were a series of religious wars waged in Europe from ca. However, the massacre has significance mainly as a symbol of the Irish perception of Cromwellian cruelty, as far more people died in the subsequent guerrilla and scorched-earth fighting in the country than at infamous massacres such as Drogheda and Wexford. HELL . Posted on April 14, 2020 by Francis Hodgson. Here a group of prominent citizens, including Bernhard Rothmann, the Lutheran pastor, Jan Matthys, and Jan Bockelson (John of Leiden) had little difficulty in obtaining possession of the town on January 5, 1534. aharriman_59962. Students progress at their own pace and you see a leaderboard and live results. In the Low Countries, English, French, and German armies intervened; and at sea Dutch, Huguenot, and English corsairs fought the Battle of the Atlantic against the Spanish champion of the Counter-Reformation. Of the 30,000 citizens, only 5,000 survived. European Wars of Religion - Olivia Fowler Timeline created by oliviafowler23. Analyze the validity of this statement: The Thirty Years' War was in part a German religious war and in part a German civil war fought over constitutional issues in the Holy Roman Empire. Following the Diet of Augsburg in 1530, the Emperor demanded that all religious innovations not authorised by the Diet be abandoned by 15 April 1531. In March 1560, the "Amboise conspiracy", or "Tumult of Amboise", was an attempt on the part of a group of disaffected nobles to abduct the young king Francis II and eliminate the Catholic House of Guise. Uploaded by. This has resulted in an explosion of studies revisiting issues of religious change, confessional violence and holy war during the early modern period. Europe’s Wars of Religion were fought against entire populations, and were punctuated by events remembered as atrocities: such as the siege of Leiden in 1573-4 or, most notoriously, the St Bartholomew’s Day Massacres in France in 1572. Her secretary, William Maitland of Lethington, defected to the Protestant side, bringing his administrative skills. However tax-raising authority for these wars was getting harder and harder to raise from parliament. In 1566, on the Assumption of the Virgin day, a group of Calvinists in the Netherlands stormed Catholic churches, destroying statutes and relics in a town just outside of Antwerp. Charles of Lorraine, Duke of Mayenne, then became the leader of the Catholic League. Meanwhile English Puritans and Scottish Calvinists intensely opposed the king's main religious policy of unifying the Church of England and the Church of Scotland under a form of High Church Anglicanism. At the church of St John the Baptist, Knox preached a fiery sermon which provoked an iconoclastic riot. Much of the Huguenots' financing came from Queen Elizabeth of England. Mary set out for Stirling on 26 August 1565 to confront them. Her son James VI was raised as a Protestant, later becoming King of England as well as Scotland. The joint Royalist and Confederate forces under the Duke of Ormonde attempted to eliminate the Parliamentary army holding Dublin, but their opponents routed them at the Battle of Rathmines (2 August 1649). Following aggressive Calvinist preaching in and around the rich merchant cities of the southern Netherlands, organized anti-catholic religious protests grew in violence and frequency. In early August 1566, a mob stormed the church of Hondschoote in Flanders (now in Northern France). These conflicts became known as the Dutch Revolt or the Eighty Years' War. There were occasions when the Wars of Religion assumed the guise of a supranational conflict between Reformation and Counter-Reformation. This led to the Fourth and Fifth Civil wars in 1572 and 1573-1576. Instructor-paced BETA . The Netherlands were split into an independent northern part, while the southern part remained under Spanish control. Religion, Wars of, 1562–98, series of civil wars in France, also known as the Huguenot Wars. The immediate issue was the French Protestants' struggle for freedom of worship and the right of establishment (see Huguenots).Of equal importance, however, was the struggle for power between the crown and the great nobles and the rivalry among the great nobles themselves for the control of the king. Read European Wars Of Religion books like The Children of the New Forest and Auldearn 1645 with a free trial Meanwhile, the solidly Catholic people of Paris, under the influence of the Committee of Sixteen were becoming dissatisfied with Henry III and his failure to defeat the Calvinists. Henry of Navarre again sought foreign aid from the German princes and Elizabeth I of England. In response, the Lutheran princes who had set up Protestant churches in their own realms met in the town of Schmalkalden in December 1530. Even though religion was given as the reaso for war, there were many other reason as well. The spread of French Calvinism persuaded the French ruler Catherine de Médicis to show more tolerance for the Huguenots, which angered the powerful Roman Catholic Guise family. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Even then, religious strife continued through the Glorious Revolution and even thereafter. The Dissolution of the Monasteries, which began in 1536, provoked a violent northern Catholic rebellion in the Pilgrimage of Grace, which was eventually put down with much bloodshed. Print; Share; Edit; Delete; Report an issue; Live modes. Community of goods was also established. By dynastic inheritance the whole of the Netherlands, (the modern day Netherlands and Belgium) had come to be ruled by the kings of Spain. The largest of the religious wars was the Thirty Years War (1618–1648), a multifaceted, dynamically shifting, European-wide war that brought the many strands of inter-state conflict together. Lots of people are posting their COVID-19 relevant images – and one day someone should make an attempt to inventory them. Spanish, Savoyard, and papal troops supported the Catholic cause in France against Huguenots aided by Protestant princes in England and Germany. How does a soul get purified? In: Bartlett,Thomas, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2014, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/European_wars_of_religion?oldid=5274776. The fragile compromise came to an end in 1584, when the King's youngest brother and heir presumptive, François, Duke of Anjou, died. Flag of the Catholic League. The Great Miseries of War by Jacques Callot, 1632. Schmalkaldic Wars. After a period of warfare and massacre, in which the atrocities of St. Bartholomew’s Day (1572) were symptomatic of the fanaticism of the age, Huguenot resistance to the crown was replaced by Catholic opposition to the monarchy’s policy of conciliation to Protestants at home and anti-Spanish alliances abroad. England, Scotland and Ireland, in personal union under the Stuart king, James I & VI, continued Elizabeth I's policy of providing military support to European Protestants in the Netherlands and France. How did European rivalries and ambitions become linked to the conflict within Germany in the late 16 c and early 17 c ? The Battle of White Mountain in Bohemia (1620)—one of the decisive battles of the Thirty Years War. The Parlement of Paris instituted criminal charges against the King, who now joined forces with his cousin, Henry of Navarre, to war against the League. The Netherlands and Switzerland were confirmed in independence. The Reformation in Scotland began in conflict. Purely political motivations, and cross-religious alliances were also significant in many of the earlier wars. 1524 to 1648, following the onset of the Protestant Reformation in Central, Western and Northern Europe.Although sometimes unconnected, all of these wars were strongly influenced by the religious change of the period, and the conflict and rivalry that it produced. The policy of the Bourbon dynasty resumed the tradition of Francis I, and under the later guidance of Cardinal Richelieu the potential authority of the monarchy was realized. Ended the Habsburg-Valois Wars (last purely dynastic wars of the 16th century) 2. 1555. Watch: AP European History - French Wars of Religion. The sack of Magdeburg in 1631. Learn from European Wars Of Religion experts like Frederick Marryat and Stuart Reid. The leadership of the Catholic League had devolved to the Duke de Mayenne, who was appointed Lieutenant-General of the kingdom. Henry was faced with the task of rebuilding a shattered and impoverished Kingdom and reuniting France under a single authority. The Zürich troops had little support from allied Protestant cantons, and Huldrych Zwingli was killed on the battlefield, along with twenty-four other pastors. Catherine and Charles decided this time to ally themselves with the House of Guise. However various Protestant elements rejected the Interim, and the Second Schmalkaldic war broke out in 1552. History. In 1576, the King signed the Edict of Beaulieu, granting minor concessions to the Calvinists, but a brief Sixth Civil War took place in 1577. htranx. European History - Wars of Religion; 1562-1598 Free Presentations in PowerPoint format. 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