Background. Most Famous Historical Monuments of Nepal. Temperatures reach 40°C in April and May. India and Nepal initiated their relationship with the 1950 Indo-Nepal Treaty of Peace and Friendship and accompanying secret letters that defined security relations between the two countries, and an agreement governing both bilateral trade and trade transiting Indian territory. This action neutralized potentially disintegrative political forces and involved them in national politics, but it also severely limited the centre’s authority in outlying areas because local administration was based upon a compromise division of responsibilities between the local elites and the central administration. The Malla dynasty, which ruled from the 10th to 18th centuries, imposed a uniform Hindu legal and social code on Nepal. The British conquest of India in the 19th century posed a serious threat to Nepal—which expected to be another victim—and left the country with no real alternative but to seek an accommodation with the British to preserve its independence. These Tibeto-Burmese peoples feature prominently in ancient Indian classics, suggesting that close ties bound the region almost 3,000 years ago. The per capita income for 2007/2008 was just $470 US. This is a timeline of Nepalese history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Nepal and its predecessor states. The regents and the nobility competed for political power, using the young rulers as puppets; both factions wanted a monopoly of political offices and power for their families, with their rivals exterminated, exiled to India, or placed in a subordinate status. The central hill-lands, including the Kathmandu and Pokhara valleys, have a temperate climate and are also influenced by the monsoons. In the north, the high Himalayas are extremely cold and increasingly dry as the altitude rises. Nepal is home to nearly 29,000,000 people. It was mentioned in classical Indian literature. Nepal also marks the collision point between Hinduism and Buddhism, between the Tibeto-Burmese language group and the Indo-European, and between Central Asian culture and Indian culture. Nepal - Nepal - Animal life: The forested areas of the Tarai are the home of tigers and leopards, gaurs (wild ox), occasional elephants and buffalo, and many deer; the deer include chital, or axis, deer (which have white-spotted bodies), sambar (a large Asiatic deer with coarse hair on the throat and strong antlers), and swamp deer. The first civilizations in Nepal, which flourished around the 6th century B.C., were confined to the fertile Kathmandu Valley where the present-day capital of the same name is located. Over 1/3 of Nepalis live below the poverty line; in 2004, the unemployment rate was a shocking 42%. He conquered the valley in 1769 and moved his capital to Kathmandu shortly thereafter, providing the foundation for the modern state of Nepal. In fact, many Nepalese people combine Hindu and Buddhist practice; many temples and shrines are shared between the two faiths, and some deities are worshiped by both Hindus and Buddhists. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, A Brief History of the African Country of Liberia, Ancient India and the Indian Subcontinent, List of Indian States and Union Territories, J.D., University of Washington School of Law, B.A., History, Western Washington University. Extensive cultural, trade, and political relations developed across the Himalayas, transforming the valley from a relatively remote backwater into the major intellectual and commercial centre between South and Central Asia. The lowest point is Kanchan Kalan, at just 70 meters (679 feet). He promulgated a new constitution, which returned most of the power to him. Politically the first rulers of Nepal were the Kirats. Several of the kings were children when they took power, so noble families vied to be the power behind the throne. The history of Nepal is something that every Nepalese looks back at and feels proud. With strong diplomatic support from New Delhi, the rebels accepted a settlement with the Ranas under which the sovereignty of the crown was restored and the revolutionary forces, led by the Nepali Congress (NC) party, gained an ascendant position in the administration. According to Nepal's constitution, all of the national languages can be used as official languages. The nation-state of Nepal was the creation of King Prithvi Narayan Shah. The country might seem like a small piece of land, but it encloses varieties from all around the world. In the 3rd century BC the great Indian Emperor introduced Buddhism into Nepal. The Lichavis are said to have migrated into Nepal from north India in around 250 A.D. They established a centralized political system by absorbing dominant regional and local elites into the central administration at Kathmandu. In fact, the Thapa family controlled Nepal 1806-37, while the Ranas took power 1846-1951. They made considerable progress, but successive setbacks in wars with China and Tibet (1788–92), with the Sikh kingdom in the Punjab (1809), with British India (1814–16), and again with Tibet (1854–56) frustrated Nepal and set the present boundaries of the kingdom. Small kingdoms and tribal confederations controlled various areas of the Tarai Region in the south. Background of experiment with democracy 1950 movement for democratization Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Gyanendra was forced to abdicate in 2007, and the Maoists won democratic elections in 2008. A pivotal moment in Nepal's history was the birth of Buddhism. 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