psychology of human traffickers

Our patients are in the community. Lynn Bufka: And that that can be used in manipulative ways that-, Lynn Bufka: -were not present twenty years ago. Human traffickers respect no boundaries. What happens with organ harvesting is in order to go from one country, for example, to come to from Mexico to the U.S., right? These effects are not necessarily mental health diagnoses, but are psychosocial states or symptoms that may occur in addition to other symptoms and diagnoses as a … General systems theory was introduced to the social work field in the late 1950’s and early 1960’s and was based on a biological model (Kondrat, 2013). I talk about adolescent- so I have a whole curriculum I've developed. Kalyani Gopal: Absolutely, absolutely. In many cultures, endurance is seen as a positive characteristic, especially among women. Kalyani Gopal: I'm able to separate them from the trafficker with that huge guilt. Human Trafficking: Defining the Phenomenon Human trafficking is a human rights violation that involves the practice of holding another person in compelled service by force, fraud, or coercion. From the view of the economy, health, psychology and the society, the effects are scary. So clearly with, with trafficking, and certainly you're talking a lot about sex trafficking, the inability to provide basic things, it's the financial motivator in many ways. It's horrifying to think about. You have a pretty daughter or you're pretty yourself or good-looking yourself. The Psychology Of A Human Trafficking Victim Even after the horror ends, up to 80% of human trafficking victims face depression, anxiety and PTSD Human trafficking … A little bit of love, and then massive doses of punishment. So at this point, I do literally 20% to 30% of my clinical work is on human trafficking work, well, anti-human trafficking work. And once they trust you, initially they won't talk of course, but once they trust you, you can't stop them. They have a hierarchy. In a special bonus episode filmed at APA 2019, the annual meeting of the association, APA Associate Executive Director, Practice Research and Policy Lynn Bufka, PhD, talks with Kalyani Gopal, PhD, executive director of the organization Sexual Trafficking Awareness Freedom and Empowerment, on the problem of sexual trafficking of children worldwide, the damage it does to victims’ mental health and what psychologists are doing to help address the issue. Lynn Bufka: Right. Reporting of Human Trafficking to Authorities or Other Agencies Dr. Regan Lookadoo , Professor of Psychology at Georgetown College in Georgetown, KY has been teaching for over 18 years. Oops, too late. Students learn to identify the common dynamics of perpetration used by traffickers, their psychological consequences on victims, and the use of screening tools to identify victims and people at risk. More commonly, however, human trafficking victims are bound by invisible chains. Child trafficking is a significant public health problem and human rights violation affecting millions of children worldwide. So what they do, they'll give you little bits of love. It could be yeah I didn't want to go to the mall. I actually came to this country to learn more about intellectual and cognitive neuropsych work, but I ended up doing child sexual abuse and forensic work, cause these kids were talking to me. Victims are made to believe that they are helpless and cannot survive without their traffickers’ help. In fact, I am currently on two human trafficking-specific dissertation committees. Lynn Bufka: Sounds like a really important vision for what you could do to benefit people who have been trafficked. And then those children then started having to testify in court, so then I went with them to testify. Lynn Bufka: Human smuggling is trying to get people who - into a country not necessarily for labor or sex purposes this is really about getting people into the country to have them being used and really kept to do things that they don't want to be doing in a way that we would consider violation of their human rights. He’s psychologically right there. Paola M. Contreras, PsyD, is a licensed psychologist and faculty at the Massachusetts School of Professional Psychology where she directs the Counseling Psychology in Global Mental Health Program. So we are, we are rehabilitating the vets, we are rehabilitating the children and we have youth and the mothers with children. Lynn Bufka: I mean that's obviously the person, that one person is benefiting financially and one person is barely surviving. But as psychologists, we can actually teach about child development. Speaking of Psychology: Human trafficking Bonus Episode – Human Trafficking Human Trafficking occurs when individuals are economically exploited through force, fraud or coercion for labor or commercial sex. Another big aspect of human trafficking is the mining industry. That is human trafficking. So if we go there and say “I'm so sorry you’re victimized by human trafficking and this guy is your pimp,” she doesn't know, he's not my pimp. Being put in jail may be a victim’s worst nightmare and will be avoided at all costs. The malls, the schools, things that we think- the playgrounds- we think these are safe places, and they’re generally safe if you're just alert to the signs. It's like a harem, so each woman has a role in that harem. A session with them is about three hours. So one of the biggest things I've got from survivors, the biggest complaints we have from survivors because I host a conference every year on human trafficking, is because a very first conference we had in 2014, we had eight survivors there and all eight of them had said “please give us jobs. So I modify a lot of those techniques, and now my patients within about four sessions I’m able to get them to speak. Because a domestic violence victim can walk out. Traffickers also rarely target victims they don’t know. The United Nations has estimated that as many as 21 million people around the world are trafficked each year, generating an estimated $32 billion. Traffickers use several tactics such as threats, lies, blackmail, intimidation, humiliation, and debt bondage to coerce victims into sex trafficking. This is the Hollywood version, but rarely the reality. Lynn Bufka: Well I'm so happy that you were able to join us today. Kalyani Gopal: So the deputies in the Sheriff's Department will send them to me. Tactic 4: Keeping a Close Watch on Victims. Nicot, Sherazi, and others involved in the field of human trafficking recognize the correlation between lockdowns and decreased ability for survivors to … The worst-case scenario is a particularly effective tactic because the police and criminal justice system are perceived to be corrupt in many of the victims’ home countries. Human trafficking victims chained, handcuffed, and blindfolded. And that's a big problem. Traffickers tell victims that most people—even health care providers—will report undocumented migrants, resulting in arrest. Chakra therapy. So I would imagine that in the field of trafficking, particularly around sex trafficking-. It's a, it's a complete manipulation and control of the human mind. You can say that psychology somewhat studies the flaws of humanity to come up with solutions for them. Human trafficking doesn't involve any consent. I was overwhelmed by how big it is, and it happens not only across borders but within countries as well. An arrest, incarceration or being labeled as a criminal would also bring a great sense of shame and embarrassment to victims’ families. 11 Tips for Talking to Someone You Disagree With. It's happening here. Research evidence on the health needs of human trafficking victims has been hugely influential – shaping international response and developing training materials used in over 155 countries. So I guess that's really where I started working with victims of trafficking without knowing myself I was doing that. They're not coming back. Traffickers go out of their way to dehumanize their victims through a multitude of abusive behaviors to ensure repeated profits. In the Benin region of Nigeria, traffickers recruit the Edo People using a unique method. This is so important. A policy brief developed by the Research-to-Policy Collaboration with support from the Society for Community Research and Action. We ask broad questions and then we narrow it down. Thank you for having me here. So I put them into deep relaxation and I literally do work that I've never done before in my life but I had to do it because that's what works. So within 48 hours of a kid being picked up by running away, one in five to six children is picked up by a trafficker. Traffickers promise a high-paying job, a loving relationship, or new and exciting opportunities and then use physical and psychological violence to control them. So we need to be out there. It’s that severe. Have you had to do something you didn't want to do? This belief can translate into women tolerating harsh, abusive situations. So that's one thing I really want to convey. You can’t go shorter than three hours because there's so much they've held in. And that child becomes the unaccompanied minors. Over time, this psychological abuse contributes to low self-worth. Kalyani Gopal: It is massive it is t- it is, and I tell people, you talk about domestic violence, right? Lastly, traffickers keep victims silent by offering them a glimmer of hope. I became my pimp’s girl?” You know, they have their- they identify themselves very street language, which I won't use, but they have very specific language how they identify themselves. So there's a lot of pedophilia that goes on. That person's in their head, you know, literally inside their head. But if I can't pay my rent, I can't put food on the table, you know, I can't buy a small toy for my grandchild, I can't do all of that, how do you want me to survive? Kalyani Gopal: And from then on, I started getting cases on child sexual abuse from across the country, testifying wherever, you know, that was going on. You know how you have nonprofit organizations and they're like let's- you need to volunteer, why don't you volunteer in this organization, or they say, you know, we are a modeling agency, you know. I suspect that's also really relevant for people who are being labor trafficked as well. The course content includes a global overview of human trafficking and how the crime unfolds within the United States. Advancing psychology to benefit society and improve lives, © 2021 American Psychological Association. Paula Tavrow, Ph.D., MSc, MALD is the director of UCLA’s Bixby Program in Population and Reproductive Health and Associate Adjunct Professor in the Community Health Sciences Department at the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health. Because you, you're talking a lot about sex trafficking, but trafficking can involve labor as well, so can you help people understand sort of the range of what human trafficking encompasses? It could be here, it could be Serbia, it could be anywhere in the world. But if you say “I'm sorry, you know, my times up, you know and you need to go, my patient’s waiting outside,” you've lost them. Welcome to the show. In order to maintain control, traffickers subject their victims to physical and psychological abuse in order to foster dependency, isolation and fear. So I modified it, for example the rapid-rapid resolution therapy which is like a visual hypnosis kind of therapy. Traffickers know that victims may be terrified of being arrested, and they use this to their advantage by repeatedly assuring victims that the police will not be on their side if they expose their traffickers. I’m able to get them to write because sometimes they would refuse to write it, they’re frightened to write. Just three. As psychologists, we have so much to offer. Kalyani Gopal: We have four hundred fifty-eight thousand missing children in the country, right? And then they'll send that picture back to you, the video back to you, and say if you don't do what I tell you or you don't serve as soon as a person, I'm going to send this to whoever you're married to. Sex tourism, if you ever travel to the middle-to the southeastern countries, sex tourism is very big and the sex extortion is very good- very big there, so tourists go from here, they think “okay you know what my wife's not here, my, my spouse, my girlfriend, whatever is not there, and what they do, pictures are taken and there’s extortion that takes place using the children. But NCMEC, which is the National Missing Exploited Children, they have identified about four and fifty-nine thousand children I think in the last year. Traffickers recruit, harbor, transport, provide and/or obtain people for the purpose of compelling labor and/or commercial sexual exploitation. Most human trafficking victims are in coercive or abusive situations from which escape may be difficult and dangerous. The windows were, there was black paper put on the windows, and inside the stage like this, a little stage, chairs just like that, and people were paying $10 a piece to come in to watch these kids do tricks, what they call tricks, on each other. Kalyani Gopal: The trafficker gets paid to traffic you. I'm Lynn Bufka, and I'm guest hosting this podcast from APA 2019 here in Chicago. Europe is a destination continent for sex and labor trafficking, so there's several different forms of it. Fraudulent brokers, corrupt officials and family members who knowingly do any of the above are easily identified as traffickers. I talk about child development. I know we focus on sex trafficking a lot, but that's with the minors. That literally is human trafficking. When we remember where our passion comes from, and the values we believe in, it is easy to see the importance of a human rights context in all our work. But we don't call it that. Give us jobs. These strategies also explain why victims may not attempt to escape their traffickers even when they have the opportunity. "Psychology as a discipline is behind the times in acknowledging trafficking." Traffickers will often live near their victims, regularly dropping by unannounced. Because if we have jobs, we won't go back. The social work understanding of general systems theory, much like the name suggests, is a theory based on understanding a system–a … And the tragedy in this field, and I say it's a tragedy because there's not enough psychologists who are involved, because you always think of it as a social justice issue, social work issue. So for example, a kidney, if I don't have any or if you have families with kidney failure, but the kidney that’s donated, there is a cost to it. Knowing these things better enables law enforcement to combat human trafficking. It introduces the four psychological profiles commonly observed in … You're basically, even though you may have come in legally at some level, you still have nothing. ... Human traffickers may be linked to highly-organized international criminal networks, they may be involved in smaller domestic networks, they may be part of a ‘family business’ or they may operate very small scale, virtually on their own. Language barriers, fear of their traffickers, and/or fear of law enforcement frequently keep victims from seeking help, making human trafficking a hidden crime. Kalyani Gopal: For the other kids and herself. Don't just tell us you're going to get us out of this life.” They call it “the life.” They say “don't get us out of the life. Human trafficking is a hidden crime as victims rarely come forward to seek help because of language barriers, fear of the traffickers, and/or fear of law enforcement. Victims may be kept isolated from others, further creating a sense of dependency upon the traffickers. Kalyani Gopal: So what really helps them is jobs. Mellissa Withers, Ph.D., MHS, is an associate professor at the Institute on Inequalities in Global Health at the University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine. who is in charge of your money? So there's two types of refugees right? That's a- I hadn't realized that was happening as well. Worldwide, it is estimated that almost 25 million people are robbed of their freedom and human dignity through trafficking. And so they will sit here they will put their legs up there and they will just hold themselves like this for hours, and you cannot speak to them because in their heads, their trafficker is looking right at them. So having done all this, these years of child sexual abuse, I was now moving into the field of human trafficking. And I've developed this program because we have 10 modules covering all the way from infancy labor sex trafficking all the, because people don't talk much about labor trafficking, so thank you so much for bringing it up again and again. Traffickers also offer intimate relationships and friendships, even if temporarily, meeting some aspects of psychological needs and further bonding victims to them–this is especially true in the case of sex trafficking of minors (Reed, Kennedy, Decker, & Cimino, 2019; Smith, Vardaman, & Snow, 2009). Is there something? We conducted semi-structured interviews with 12 adult women trafficked into Los Angeles County, from … 'The Psychology of Modern Day Slavery,' a film developed, directed and produced by Div. You can't do traditional-traditional visual therapy. Psychological Coercion in Human Trafficking: An Application of Biderman’s Framework Susie B. Baldwin1, Anne E. Fehrenbacher2, and David P. Eisenman2 Abstract This study examined coercive conditions experienced by trafficked persons in the context of Biderman’s theory of coercion. Traffickers make false promises to victims that they will be released once they pay off these debts, which may seem like the only option to victims. Her trafficker’s in the room with her. In the United States, when women are trafficked for sex, the coercion is most likely psychological, a "grooming" process whereby a woman is lured into a seemingly caring relationship with a man who will put her to work for his benefit in the commercial sex trade, Sidun says. And then about 10-20 years ago, or 15-20 years ago maybe, I had a young girl call me from Chicago and I was at this time working in Indiana, and she called me and she said, “doc come pick me up.” And I was like, “I'm not going to come pick you up.” This is a foster child, I said, “I'm not gonna come pick you up, you know, go home. A new theory aims to make sense of it all. So I get them from a variety of different. Or they'll make you do certain poses and they'll put that and they can digitally change you so that you are actually performing an act. I've been in the field for about 30 years now, and I first got in the field of human trafficking probably when I was 17 or 18 without knowing that I was working with victims of human trafficking. Lynn Bufka: It’s huge. So that is a challenge between legal and illegal immigration too for us, because they have lost their papers because those papers get confiscated. Kalyani Gopal: Thank You Lynne. And then years, about 15-20 years later go- no, 30 years ago, 25-30 years ago, I had a family of four children in Gary, Indiana, and they were between seven years old and the youngest was two to three years old, and they were being asked to perform tricks with each other. And then they're saying, “if you're my friend, you'll send me your picture.” Before, it was “if you're my friend you’ll wear the same color clothes I wear.” You know, nowadays if you're my friend you'll upload a picture of yourself doing XYZ. Progress Notes is a podcast with practicing psychologists in mind. Kalyani Gopal: Sure. Sex Trafficking: Should Parents Be Worried. And imagine you're married, you have children, you have a family, and you just say okay I want to make some extra money, I want to do some modeling, I work in a retail store. These tactics instill fear and a sense of obligation for victims to do acts they would not otherwise do. Kalyani Gopal: You're not paying money to be trafficked. Lynn Bufka: So how can the average person recognize whether or not someone's being trafficked when that person themselves doesn't necessarily recognize it? But with the older people, the older adults, labor trafficking would be where they take an organ in exchange for safe passage of your family. I was 18, 17-18 myself and so were the girls. Of course you're going to give your papers because you want to get that job or you want to be allowed in a new country. It's like this massive shame and guilt because once they get better, once they realize they’re victims, and they, by the way, they never think of themselves as victims. Third most common crime after financial fraud and drug trafficking. whom are women, often use psychology to trafficker... Vets, we have, you know, it 's in charge your... Are women, often use psychology to their everyday lives and abroad of trauma with. Force on the desperate, and I went to the jail and I want to come for a life! Put on them through the cigarette butts psychology of human traffickers put in jail may a. Office, right coercive or abusive situations from which escape may be difficult dangerous. 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psychology of human traffickers 2021